À partir d'un document officiel, «Minter» est une blockchain qui permet aux particuliers, aux projets et aux entreprises d'émettre et de gérer leurs propres pièces, ainsi que de les vendre au juste prix du marché avec une liquidité absolue et instantanée. La blockchain Minter fonctionne sur le moteur Tendermint, la technologie derrière le projet Cosmos Network, et utilise un algorithme de consensus appelé DPoS (Delegate Proof-of-Stake, «Délégation de preuve de participation»). Ce fait indique que «Minter» sera automatiquement compatible avec de nombreux projets existants et futurs de cet écosystème prometteur. L'idéologie de Minter est basée sur le travail scientifique d'économistes célèbres: le lauréat du prix Nobel d'économie Friedrich von Hayek a fait valoir que l'argent n'est qu'un type d'information et doit donc être dénationalisé et donc produit par toute personne physique ou morale, et John Maynard Keynes a proposé une nouvelle une monnaie de réserve mondiale appelée le banquier, qui deviendrait l'unité de compte internationale pour la liquidité du commerce international. https://preview.redd.it/pq6q15vajwl51.png?width=725&format=png&auto=webp&s=27dee3997a4f2a8ef3ff98e1f260a70d984359b1
BIP - la principale crypto-monnaie du réseau Minter
Le jeton natif de Minter est appelé BIP, qui signifie Blockchain Instant Payment. Son objectif est de satisfaire les besoins du marché réel, notamment des transferts rapides entre utilisateurs, de faibles commissions (voire leur absence) et, bien sûr, une offre solide de pièces d'un montant de 10 milliards de BIP. Pour l'utilisateur final, le BIP offre d'énormes avantages compétitifs par rapport aux pièces conventionnelles: les transferts sont effectués en quelques secondes, et le volume des transactions est de dizaines de milliers par minute; la commission moyenne est bien inférieure à 1 cent et peut ne pas être facturée du tout; les noms d'utilisateur peuvent être utilisés comme adresses. La vitesse de traduction est vraiment impressionnante. Littéralement 2 secondes, et les pièces que vous avez envoyées sont déjà sur un autre portefeuille. Cette propriété est comparable au paiement dans un magasin avec une carte de crédit, lorsque le processus d'envoi de fonds se produit instantanément. Le nombre maximum de jetons sera de 10 milliards; la distribution devrait être achevée à une altitude de 43 702 611 blocs en sept ans environ.
Un service de création de vos propres pièces à la disposition de chaque utilisateur
Le réseau Minter vous permet de créer des pièces personnalisées avec une réserve de BIP, qui peuvent être instantanément reconverties en BIP ou en d'autres pièces émises sur le réseau. Immédiatement après sa création, les pièces auront une valeur réelle, fournie par une réserve du BIP et des formules économiques. De plus, la réserve crée une liquidité absolue et instantanée pour tous les acteurs du marché, car n'importe quelle pièce peut être échangée contre une autre en quelques secondes et sans intermédiaire. Étant donné que Minter fait partie du réseau Cosmos, les pièces peuvent également être échangées contre Bitcoin (BTC) et Ether (ETH), ainsi que toute autre crypto-monnaie utilisant la technologie de swap atomique. https://preview.redd.it/x7564mgdjwl51.jpg?width=1300&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=89035bf124c1145313ed8e2f68e5d2a3b362ac19
Qu'est-ce que le masternode?
Masternode - est un serveur sur un réseau décentralisé. Il est utilisé pour effectuer des fonctions uniques que les nœuds ordinaires (incomplets) ne peuvent pas exécuter. Il s'agit de transactions directes / instantanées ou de transferts privés.
Qui sont les validateurs?
Minter Blockchain s'appuie sur un ensemble de validateurs chargés de générer de nouveaux blocs dans la blockchain. Les validateurs participent à un protocole de consensus en transmettant des votes contenant des signatures cryptographiques signées par la clé privée de chaque validateur. Les validateurs et leurs délégués reçoivent le BIP en tant que récompenses en bloc ainsi qu'en commissions.
Qui sont les délégués?
Tout utilisateur du réseau peut déléguer son BIP, ainsi que toutes les pièces émises sur le réseau Minter, à des masternodes et recevoir des récompenses pour la validation des blocs et des commissions des transactions effectuées sur le réseau. Le revenu est divisé proportionnellement au steak entre tous les délégants, moins la commission du propriétaire du masternode.
Intégration avec Telegram Open Network
Dès le tout début des travaux sur la blockchain Minter, les créateurs se sont fixé comme objectif principal de créer la crypto-monnaie la plus simple, l'argent numérique. En conséquence, l'idée a évolué un peu plus loin: les développeurs veulent atteindre le niveau où toutes les pièces du réseau Minter peuvent être librement échangées les unes contre les autres, Bitcoin, éther et même USD. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous attendons tous ensemble la sortie de TON, qui est malheureusement reportée en raison des actions de la SEC.
Comment utiliser la crypto-monnaie BIP dans la vraie vie?
Minter crée un écosystème autour de lui, dont le but est d'utiliser le BIP dans la vie réelle, sans avoir besoin de convertir des pièces en monnaies fiduciaires. Un certain nombre de services ont déjà été créés qui vous permettent de manger pour le BIP, de commander des marchandises sur AliExpress, de reconstituer le solde de votre téléphone, de laver votre voiture, de payer un abonnement IVI, etc. OUI OUI OUI! Pas besoin de vendre BIP en fiat, vous pouvez payer directement avec BIP. Ici vous pouvez voir les endroits où ils acceptent le BIP https://mintermap.com La liste des lieux est constamment mise à jour. https://preview.redd.it/3v1hjdkfjwl51.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5f1e4184000504c91a8acbc0b7eb29121b82e09a Comment devenir membre de l'écosystème Minter? Pour devenir membre du Minter Network, vous devez enregistrer un portefeuille dans le système. Cela se fait très simplement en utilisant la console sur le site officiel - https: //console.minter.network Plus important encore, conservez la phrase de départ dans un endroit sûr, sans elle, vous pouvez perdre l'accès à votre portefeuille pour toujours. Plus d'informations peuvent être obtenues sur le site Web - https://help.minter.network Cette revue vous a présenté la blockchain, dont l'écosystème est déjà uni par de vrais modèles commerciaux, un millième public d'utilisateurs actifs, la possibilité de créer votre propre crypto-monnaie en quelques minutes, et surtout, l'utilisation réelle de la crypto-monnaie dans la vie. Merci de votre attention et familiarisez-vous avec le nouvel outil. Rejoignez-nous maintenant. We mint coins.
What A Day: American Carnage by Brian Beutler, Priyanka Aribindi & Crooked Media (08/05/19)
”Members of the press, what the fuck...”—Beto O’Rourke to a political media that refuses to see President Trump for what he is
Vote Them Out
Two terrorist gunmen, including a white nationalist who was emboldened by President Trump, murdered over 30 people in El Paso, TX, and Dayton, OH, over the weekend. Now Republicans, led by Trump, are desperately ducking and deflecting widespread demands for them to pass background-check legislation and denounce the President’s complicity. Here’s the latest. What happened? First, a man armed with a military-style assault rifle posted a hate-filled, anti-immigrant screed on the white natonalist online organizing hub 8chan, before entering an El-Paso Wal-Mart and murdering at least 22 people. The so-called “manifesto” used terms like “invaders” to describe Hispanic immigrants and “fake news” to describe the media—words taken directly from Trump. Hours later, another white man, similarly armed, killed nine people, including his own sister, in a 30-second gun rampage at a bar in Dayton. The Texas gunman is in custody, and police killed the Dayton gunman. How has the public responded? In two ways. First, there’s the overwhelming majority of people of good faith who take the problem seriously. They have engaged in a conversation about fighting and deradicalizing white supremacists, holding media and tech outlets that enable them accountable, and passing gun control measures. Democrats have called on the Senate to return from recess to pass H.R. 8, a bipartisan bill that would require everyone trying to purchase a firearm to undergo a background check. How have Republicans responded? By ignoring the problem and blaming people and influences that have nothing to do with it.
House Minority Leader Kevin McCarty and many other Republicans blamed video games.
Trump blamed the media for being mean to him, and called on Congress to respond to a terrorist who wanted to kill immigrants by passing legislation to restrict more immigration, because he is not a great person.
An Ohio state lawmaker blamed “Drag queen advocates,” Colin Kaepernick, and Barack Obama.
Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX) blamed the fundamental unsolvability of the country’s problems. Make America The Same Again.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell tweeted an image of tombstones engraved with the names of his opponent, Amy McGrath, and the bills and nominations McConnell has killed.
In other words, Republicans at all levels of government are too cowardly or bigoted to do anything about this. That’s not surprising at this point—Republicans are completely invested in or in agreement with Trump’s racism and his efforts to encourage racism among his supporters to maintain his grip on power. But it is still shocking and unacceptable. The only solution is to end their careers resoundingly next November, and to never let them or people like them within a mile of public office ever again. What can you do?
Have access to a phone? Call your senators. There have been 101 mass shootings since Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell began blocking H.R. 8. Demand that this legislation be debated and voted on → (202) 224-3121
Have a few dollars to spare? Now is a good time to donate to our Get Mitch or Die Trying fund to help Democrats win the Senate majority they will need to make gun control happen → https://votesaveamerica.com/getmitch
Under The Radar
Cloudfare, the internet infrastructure company that hosted 8chan, announced that it would stop hosting the site, which is now struggling to remain online. 8chan was once a relatively obscure online messageboard, nominally devoted to “free speech,” but it quickly became a haven for terrorist mass shooters and violent white supremacists— in other words, a place where people too extreme for 4chan congregate. Before the shooting in El Paso, the gunman posted a four-page, racist manifesto on the site and encouraged its users to spread it widely. The Christchurch, NZ, terrorist who massacred dozens of Mosque-goers, and the Poway, CA, terrorist, who shot up a synagogue, also uploaded hate-filled screeds to 8chan before murdering innocent religious minorities. The site is home to incels, QAnon conspiracy theorists, and other dangerous, radicalized, overwhelmingly white and male individuals, who are increasingly unwelcome on other online platforms.
Look No Further Than The Crooked Media
On last week’s Lovett or Leave It (the night after his debate appearance): JAY INSLEE. Plus Kara Swisher, Kara Brown, and Ramy Youseff. But seriously—Jay Inslee. And his glasses. 🔥 Gov. Inslee breaks down the debates, the importance of climate change in his campaign, and his newfound title as the "ancient snack" of the Democratic primaries. Listen →
House Judiciary Committee Chair Jerry Nadler said his committee * could * recommend articles of impeachment against Donald Trump by late fall. Reminder, the purpose of impeachment is to hold numerous public hearings on Trump’s unprecedented criminality before making every representative and senator vote on it, so please don’t skip that part. North Korea used cyberattacks to steal from banks and cryptocurrency exchanges to amass an estimated $2 billion for its weapons of mass destruction programs, according to a confidential U.N. report. So that’s who probably stole your friend’s bitcoin. The Dow dropped 760 points on Monday in the year’s worst day of stock trading in response to Chinese retaliation against Trump’s catastrophic trade war. So sick of winning! Widespread strikes in Hong Kong have canceled and delayed over 100 flights into and out of the city’s airport—one of the world’s busiest. The strikes grew out of months worth of mass protests for greater democracy, an inquiry into alleged police brutality, and the resignation of the city's pro-Beijing leader, Carrie Lam. Rep. Kenny Merchant (R-TX) became the fourth Texas Republican in the past two weeks—and the eleventh House Republican this year— to announce his retirement ahead of the 2020 elections, reflecting President Trump’s wizard-like ability to use racism to make Democrats play into his hands. Merchant beat his obscure Democratic opponent by only three percentage points in 2018, but this year there will be a competitive Democratic primary in the district. R. Kelly has been charged with two counts of child prostitution in Minnesota on top of his similar state and federal charges in Chicago and additional federal charges in Brooklyn. Gannett and GateHouse Media, two of the country’s largest newspaper publishers, will merge, creating a conglomerate of over 250 daily newspapers, and hundreds more weekly ones. The merger is expected to save hundreds of millions of dollars, but the company will still likely cut jobs. According to the Washington Post, “Employment in the newspaper industry fell about 47 percent between 2008 and 2018, a decline worse than coal mining over roughly the same period.” Can’t figure out how to make a profit? MERGE BABY MERGE! Far-right, anti-Muslim hatemonger Laura Loomer will run for Congress in a heavily Democratic district in Florida, and one wild House Republican and a Fox host couldn’t be happier. Maybe she will chain herself to the entrance of Congress next.
Politics Live from New York Times - Politics, Pacing and Comfort Food Don’t miss The Times’s first revue exploring the 2020 Election hosted by deputy politics editor Rachel Dry. You’ll hear from Times political reporters Astead Herndon and Katie Glueck on this historic field of Democratic candidates — and from experts beyond our Politics desk. Food columnist Melissa Clark and political correspondent Jonathan Martin will dish on deep-fried Twinkies at the Iowa State Fair. Journalist Lindsay Crouse will speak with Olympian and marathoner Alexi Pappas on pacing. $10 ticket for Crooked Media with code 2020 (Savings of $30)
Is That Hope I Feel?
“...All of us have to send a clarion call and behave with the values of tolerance and diversity that should be the hallmark of democracy. We should soundly reject language coming out of the mouths of any of our leaders that feeds a climate of fear and hatred or normalizes racist sentiments; leaders who demonize those who don’t look like us, or suggest that other people, including immigrants, threaten our way of life, or refer to other people as sub-human, or imply that America belongs to just one certain type of people… it has no place in our politics and our public life. And it’s time for the overwhelming majority of Americans of goodwill, of every race and faith and political party, to say as much—clearly and unequivocally.” —Barack Obama
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Presenting ForDeX - The World's First Stablecoin-focused Relayer
Visit ForDex. TheProfusion of Stablecoins: Enough has been said about the extreme volatility of cryptocurrencies and how it hinders the broader real-world adoption of cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin’s store-of-value and uncensorable medium-of-exchange propositions are vastly undermined by its huge price swings. Any asset that fluctuates by 20% in a single day cannot become a reliable instrument for either of the aforementioned value propositions. According to a few cryptocurrency maximalists, the extreme volatility of cryptocurrencies can be attributed to the speculative nature of the asset class and that the volatility will subside once investors understand the inarguable benefits of the utility aspects of cryptocurrencies. On the other side, crypto detractors posit that the high fluctuations in crypto asset prices will never lead to the real-life adoption of cryptocurrencies. It’s a chicken-and-egg problem here. More adoption curbs volatility and high volatility curbs adoption. This is why stablecoins are important. To drive real-life adoption of cryptocurrencies, new users need to interface with the crypto world through a price-stable cryptocurrency (Stablecoins). Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies whose value is pegged to the value of a different asset (mostly USD, but other fiat-pegged stablecoins are also in existence with more in the pipeline). The number of stablecoin projects is increasingly growing every year and witnessing a sharp growth in stablecoin development activity outside the US, especially in SE Asia, with a few projects ready to be launched soon. Besides the arbitrage use case, stablecoins could potentially pave the way for mainstream adoption by enabling stablecoin-denominated wages, blockchain-based lending, and a host of other applications. We expect the stablecoin ecosystem to become richer and more vibrant through the entry of more fiat-pegged stablecoins of various currencies. Price arbitrage between stablecoins is expected to attract lots of trading activity on exchanges. In addition, we firmly believe that having a robust and liquid market for trading between stablecoins of various currencies has the potential to disrupt the costly and less transparent legacy infrastructure for remittances. As such, we decided to leverage the technology of the 0x protocol to launch a relayer that predominantly focuses on stablecoin-to-stablecoin trading, in order to build out the next generation and crypto-powered FX markets.
Why build a relayer?
Centralized exchanges have for long been the Achilles heel of the crypto ecosystem. Besides offering almost zero privacy through mandatory KYC/AML imposition and the onerous onboarding procedure, centralized exchanges are also the most vulnerable to many attack vectors, including exchange hacks, DDoS attacks, etc. On the other hand, 0x-based relayers enable p2p trustless trading where the relayer does not take the ownership of users’ funds at any point during the trade and also offer full privacy. Users can simply plug-in their wallets to our relayer and trade tokens directly in and out of their wallets effortlessly for any ERC20 token. ForDeX maintains an off-chain order-book that matches orders and sends the orders to the Ethereum blockchain for execution. https://preview.redd.it/q8lvfg1twdc21.png?width=1426&format=png&auto=webp&s=0240f3b815222e45c1d0efedcb85e99aeac0ff83
When is the launch? What features will be available?
We look forward to bringing the ‘alpha’ version of ForDex to you on the 26th of this month. During our alpha stage, we intend to provide the following features on our relayer: 1.Stablecoin-to-Stablecoin trading for the USDC/DAI, PAX/USDC, KRWb/DAI, etc. 2.First-ever fiat onramp for a relayer, with assistance from Wyre 3.First-ever exchange to facilitate a fast and transparent conversion of USD to KRW through stablecoins (DAI/KRWb, USDC/KRWb, and PAX/KRWb)
Lisk Highlights, April 24th 2019: Lisk's Tech Evangelist features on Hackernoon as a follow-up to her podcast interview.
Hello there. Here is my selection for today's highlights and interesting items within the Lisk ecosystem and beyond.....
Lisk's Tech Evangelist features on Hackernoon as a follow-up to her podcast interview.
Tech Evangelist for the Lisk project, Rachel Black, spoke with Chris Ward (aka Chris Chinchilla) on the "Weekly Squeak" podcast towards the latter part of 2018. Now in his first blockwatch of 2019 Chris recaps the interview and writes about where he thinks the Lisk project is at this time in the market. He reckons that "while the current cryptocurrency bear market isn’t great for tradable tokens right now, it is providing Lisk the opportunity to make some serious progress, that’s because more devs + fewer traders = an excellent time to develop." Another point he made was that "the Lisk team differ from many others in their space because they have a big focus on accessibility and have been working hard to create an ecosystem that’s both useful and usable for developers." You can read the full Hacknoon piece HERE.
After 15 years as a developer Chris Chinchilla now podcasts and blogs as he "loves to explain cool tech to the world". His 2018 interview segment with Rachel was fast moving, friendly and conversational. However Chris pulled no punches with some of his questions and pressed Rachel on a lot of issues that the Lisk community commonly inquire about. Rachel performed really well when faced with this line of questioning. She was honest and upfront regarding what Lisk is and isn't, it's progress, and it's future. You can listen the interview titled "Developer Relations and Tech Evangelism With Rachel Black of Lisk"HERE. Rachel's segment starts from about 16.30 in, and it is well worth a listen.
The last few weeks in the markets, especially since the launch of Libra, have seen extreme price swings not seen since late 2017. The price of Bitcoin jumped by over 20% in the last few days, reaching a (local) high of $14k in price, and is currently trading in the high $11ks. While it is easy to start drawing comparisons between the current price rally and that of late 2017, underlying data seems to indicate that the recent purchasing activity is largely without retail investors; Retail was the key reason the price of bitcoin rose above $20k in the previous mega bull run.
Centralized exchanges such as Binance force users to give up custody in exchange for speed and liquidity. While this is the first attack on Binance, such attacks are quite common — over $2 billion has been stolen from centralized exchanges in just 2018! There are two key solutions which we believe can completely eliminate exchange-level hacks — decentralized exchanges and private key management solutions.
Decentralized Exchanges (DEXs), especially 0x-based exchanges such as ForDeX and Radar Relay are the real deal, long term. DEXs capture the true power of blockchains and smart contracting. Centralized Exchanges are not ‘crypto-native’, they are a traditional market construct that has been force fitted into the blockchain paradigm. Unlike a centralized exchange like Nasdaq which will make you ‘whole’ in the unlikely event that they somehow misplace any of your shares, with crypto centralized exchanges, you are just letting your tokens sit in massive hacker honey pots that are ridiculously easy to hack, without any recourse in case the exchange loses your coins. In contrast, DEXs are completely trustless, peer-to-peer and have modularization that lets developers separate the platform from the regulatory aspects such as fiat on-off ramps and KYC/AML filters. In an era of rampant hacks and assaults on privacy, DEXs provide an element of true anonymity, much like SSL (Secure Socket Layers) did in the the early days of the internet, truly kicking off e-commerce and transactions on the internet. DEXs allow for the use of smart contracts to programmatically bring together multiple facets of decentralization that define the new era of distributed finance (DeFi), such as lending and borrowing, leveraging, automated credit assessment (Dharma, Compound, DyDx, Bloom, SALT, ETHLend, etc). DEXs along with stablecoins can also create a robust marketplace for remittances. In a tokenized economy, DEXs will become critical in seamless value exchange between a diverse array of market participants, most of whom will not be aware that they are being served by a DEX in the background. It is no wonder that the largest centralized exchanges of today such as Coinbase, Binance et al are investing heavily in building and developing DEX technology. Do DEXs have a problem in the short term? Absolutely, like every other crypto project out there, DEXs have their share of issues. There is the latency, but technologies like Plasma are in the works to solve these. Regulation is still getting to grips with DEXs, as seen from the recent EtherDelta incident. However, the paradigm shift does not happen easily, it is going to take a few iterations. For all we know the end-state for DEXs look as similar to today’s relayers as the iPhone does to the early Ericsson mobile phones! Investing is like a surfer holding out for the next wave, as Michael Novogratz says. Just hold on. The key is to hold on to a seat when the music stops, so that you are in the game when the markets turn, and the music begins again!
Private Key Management Solutions
Private key management is a complicated, esoteric task and not many users have the technical nous to manage the keys by themselves. Private keys require extreme care and consideration with regards to storage and security. A failure to maintain the utmost of care may result in loss or theft of cryptocurrency. Anyone who has been around the cryptocurrency space for some time has probably heard about cryptocurrency theft. The importance of prudent private key management is further exacerbated by the fact that blockchain transactions are by default irreversible. Once your funds get hacked, it is almost next to impossible to retrieve these lost funds. Crypto custody firms use a combination of cold storage and Hardware Security Module (HSM) solutions to minimize the threat of external hacks. Centralized exchanges, at least in their current avatar, have a fatal flaw — they are essentially honeypots under constant attack from a variety of motivated, unscrupulous, hackers from around the globe, 24×7; the increasing number of exchange hacks highlights the structural deficiencies in the way crypto exchanges manage private keys for their users. A massive architectural overhaul is needed to guarantee the safety of user funds. This is also the reason why multiple players — ranging from startups to traditional Wall Street institutions (JP Morgan, BNY) to crypto-native entities (such as Coinbase), are all trying to solve the problem of safe, reliable, custody. We believe that there are multiple strong wallets and retail-level custody solutions which can protect investors from being exposed to the above mentioned hacks. Many are compatible with DEXs such as ForDeX, giving users complete access to their funds while trading. For the moment, we recommend that you stick to your friendly, neighborhood DEX such as ForDeX ;)for all your crypto trading needs, wherever you are. — — — ForDeX is the world’s first stablecoin-focused relayer and is built on top of the 0x-Protocol. Within a few weeks of launch, it is now a Top-5 relayer and is a recipient of 0x Ecosystem Acceleration Grant. If you are interested in partnering with us, please do not hesitate to reach out to us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]?utm_campaign=Satoshi%26Co%20Daily%20Crypto%20Newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Revue%20newsletter). Keep track of our progress on the following channels:Reddit, Twitter, Medium and Telegram.
Silk Road Conference is the startup conference in Iran
Despite the sanctions, some foreign VCs manage to invest in Iran (e.g. Pomegranate, a Sweden-based VC)
Mining bitcoin is recognized has an industry in Iran – and electricity is very cheap in Iran (Get in touch with if you want to speak about setting up mining farm in Iran.)
A former electrode factory is being turned into an 18,000 square meter co working space to gather up all innovation and acceleration programmes. Sarava and Pardis Technology Park are the main investors but economic downturn due to recent sanctions is making fund raising hard.
Abstract The fundamental attack against blockchain systems is the double-spend attack. In this tutorial, we provide a very detailed explanation of just one section of Satoshi Nakamoto's original paper where the attack's probability of success is stated. We show the derivation of the mathematics relied upon by Nakamoto to create a model of the attack. We also validate the model with a Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine which model component is not perfect. References  A. W. F. Edwards. Pascal’s problem: The ‘gambler’s ruin’. Revue Internationale de Statistique, 51(1):73–79 (http://www.jstor.org/stable/1402732), Apr 1983.  W. Feller. An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications: Volume I, volume 3. John Wiley & Sons London-New York-Sydney-Toronto, 1968.  M. J. Fischer, N. A. Lynch, and M. S. Paterson. Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 32(2):374–382, 1985.  S. Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf, May 2009.  A. P. Ozisik, G. Andresen, G. Bissias, A. Houmansadr, and B. Levine. A Secure, Efficient, and Transparent Network Architecture for Bitcoin. Technical Report UM-CS-2016-006, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2016.  L. Rey-Bellet. Gambler’s ruin and bold play. http://people.math.umass.edu/~lr7q/ps_files/teaching/math456/Week4.pdf, June 7 2016.  K. Sigman. Gambler’s ruin problem. www.columbia.edu/~ks20/FE-Notes/4700-07-Notes-GR.pdf, June 7 2016.  R. E. Walpole, R. H. Myers, S. L. Myers, and K. Ye. Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists. Prentice Hall, (See pg. 161 for a discussion of Poisson experiments), 9th edition, 2012.
France: l’impôt sur les crypto-monnaies baisse de 45 à 19 %
En France, le temps où la plus-value générée par la vente de crypto-monnaies n’était pas imposée est bien loin, très loin. En 2014, l’administration fiscale a déterminé le régime fiscal applicable au Bitcoinet à ses consorts. Et depuis, les gains perçus sur la vente de crypto-monnaies étaient considérés à titre de bénéfices non commerciaux comme des honoraires. Ce qui a fait que les gains générés sur la vente de ces crypto-devises étaient imposés à hauteur de 45 %. Toutefois, le conseil d’État a reconsidéré la situation et la nouvelle vient de tomber, les bénéfices sur le Bitcoin changent de catégorie. Désormais, les plus-values que les ventes de cette crypto-monnaie pourront générer bénéficieront d’un régime fiscal plus profitable. http://fr.interactivecrypto.com/france-limpot-crypto-monnaies-baisse-de-45-a-19
G20 - (Financial Stability Board, FSB), which coordinates financial regulation for the countries of the G20 , on Sunday rejected calls from several countries who called for regulation of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin
This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 1%. (I'm a bot)
LONDRES, 18 mars - Le Conseil de stabilité financière, qui coordonne la réglementation financière pour les pays du G20, a rejeté dimanche les appels de plusieurs pays qui demandaient une régulation des cryptomonnaies, comme le bitcoin. Le FSB a toutefois souligné la nécessité d'une plus grande coordination internationale en matière de surveillance de ces technologies, qui évoluent vite, mais qui représentent toujours un secteur minuscule équivalant moins de 1% du produit intérieur brut mondial. "La première évaluation du FSB est qu'à l'heure actuelle, ces crypto-actifs ne font pas courir de risque la stabilité financière mondiale", déclare Mark Carney, président du FSB, dans une lettre adressée aux ministres des Finances et aux gouverneurs des banques centrales, qui se réuniront Buenos Aires lundi et mardi. Mark Carney, qui quittera son poste l'année prochaine, quand il abandonnera ses fonctions de gouverneur de la Banque d'Angleterre, a relevé que la personne qui lui succédera, superviserait un régulateur davantage porté passer en revue les règles existantes qu'à en mettre en place des nouvelles. Dans sa lettre, il fait également savoir que le FSB, qui a mené une série de réformes bancaires et financières après la crise de 2007-2009, va se concentrer sur les règles actuelles plutôt que d'en concevoir de nouvelles. "Comme le travail du FSB, qui vise combler les lignes de faille ayant causé la crise financière, s'approche de son terme, ce dernier va davantage se concentrer sur la mise en oeuvre et l'évaluation rigoureuse des effets des réformes approuvées par le G20", indique Mark Carney.
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